Dohari Nirikshan/Prashaasan Pranaali

Dohari Nirikshan/Prashaasan Pranaali

 

Sarakaar (Ya Sahi Shabdon Me Lok Prashaasan) Ke Har Star Par—Chhote Star Par Gharajamaayi Samudaaya Se Lekar Bade Star Par Samooche Misr Men—Dohari Shaashan Pranaali Thi. Kayi Maayanon Men, Dohare Shaashan Vaali Yah Pranaali Hamaare Vartamaan Samaya Me Bhi Kaayam Hai. Jaise Britain Ko Len, To Vahaan Ka Raastraadhyaksh British Samraat Hota Hai, Jo England Ke Church Ka Pradhaan Hota Hai, Aur Use Rajagaddi Vishist Vareeyata Ke Anusaar Milati Hai. Magar, British Samraat Dainik Maamalon Ko Nahi Sambhaalata Hai, Balki Aise Maamale Pradhaanamantrai Dvaara Sambhaale Jaate Hain, Jo Vibhinn Mantraalayon/Vibhaagon Ke Kaaryon Ka Sanchaalan/Nigaraani Karata Hai. Pradhaanamantrai Samraat Ki Or Se Kaarya Karata Hai, Bhale Hi Pradhaanamantrai (Aur Usake Raajnaytik Dal) Ka Chunaav Praja Dvaara Kiya Jaata Hai. Hame Theek Aisi Hi Dohari Vyavastha Un Deshon Me Bhi Dekhane Ko Milati Hai, Jahaan Rajashaahi Nahi Hai, Jaise Ki Germani Aur Israayil—In Deshon Me Raastrapati Aur Chaansalar/Pradhaanamantrai Ke Beech Aisi Hi Dohari Vyavastha Dekhane Ko Milati Hai.

Isi Tarah—Vaichaarik Taur Par—Praacheen Misri Samaaj Ke Adhyaksh Firaaun Hote The, Jo Praakritik (Saansaarik) Aur Alaukik (Divy) Shaktiyon Ke Beech Laukik Kaadi Ka Pratinidhitva Karate The. Unaka Kaam Shaashan Karana Nahi, Balki Samaaj Ke Kalyaana Ke Liye Vidhiyon Aur Sanskaaron Ka Nispaadan Karana Tha. Dainik Maamalon Ko Sambhaalane Ke Liye Firaaun Ne Sarvochch/Mukhya Padon Par Nyayedheesh/Raajyapaal Ko Apna Adhikaari Niyukt Kiya Tha, Jinhen Kam Se Kam Puraane Saamraajya Kaal (2575-2150 Eisa Poorv) Tak Raja Ke Baad Doosare Nnbar Par Maana Jaata Tha. Jabaki Vah Samooche Prashaasan Ka Pramukh Hota Tha. Adhyaatmik Aur Prashaasanik Netritva Ki Isi Dohari Pranaali Ke Tahat Pratyek Praant (Nome) Ka Prasaasan Chalata Tha.

Shaasan Ki Yah Dohari Pranaali, Praacheen Misri Brahmaandeeya Roopak Ki Shaashan Pranaali Ka Hi Pratiroop Thi, Jisame Brahmaanda Ka Raja (Amen-Ra) Aur Usaka Raajyapaal-Tehuti (Thoth) Tha, Jo Gyaan Ka Neter (Devata) Wa Buddhimaan Nyayedheesh Tha. Praacheen Misr Men, Tehuti (Thoth) Divya Bhasha/Dhvani/Aavaaz Ka Prateek Tha. Is Prakaar, Tehuti (Thoth) Ek Adarsh Kaaryakaari Aur Adhikaarik Pravakta Tha.

Praacheen Misr Ke Raajyapaal Ko Mukhya Nyayedheesh Ke Roop Me Bhi Jaana Jaata Tha. Raajyapaal Ke Liye Prayukt Misri Shabd ‘Qaadi’ (Qaazi)—Ka Kriyaatmak Moolashabd Qada (Qaza) Hai, Jisaka Arth Hota Hai—Kaarya Karana, Yaani ‘Qaadi’ (Qaazi) Ka Arth Vistrit Arthon Me Kaaryakaari Hua. Mukhya Nyayedheesh Wa Raajyapaal, Krisi, Rajakos Ityaadi Jaise Vibhinn Vibhaagon Ke Pramukhon (Adhikaaree/Nyayedheesh) Ki Adhyakshata Karata Tha, Jo Mahaasabha Ya Lokasabha Kahalaati Thi.

Isi Prakaar, Kshetraeeya Aur/Ya Sthaaneeya Star Par Raajyapaal Ke Kaaryaalaya Ka Hamesha Sarvochch Mahatva Hota Tha, Aur Unake Adhikaar Kshetra Me Bhoomi Prabandhan Tatha Zile Ke Antarik Prashaasan Se Sambandhit Sabhi Maamale Ate The. Vah (Aur Usake Sahaayak Adheekshak), Bhoomi Ke Sarvekshana, Naharon Ke Arambh, Samast Krisi Aur Saamudaayik Pariyojanaaon, Vaanijya Se Sambandhit Maamalon, Evam Samudaay/Jilaa/Praant/Desh Ke Hiton Se Jude Anya Sabhi Maamalon Ko Niyantrait Karate The. Bhoo-Sampatti Tatha Anya Akasmik Vivaadon Ko Kaaryakaari Nyayedheesh Ke Samaksh Bheja Jaata Tha, Tatha Usake Nyayedhikarana Se Saamane Sulajhaaya Jaata Tha.

‘‘Raajyapaal’’ Mukhya Kaaryakaari Adhikaari Hota Tha, Jo Vidhaayi Shaakha (Shresthon Ki Parisad) Dvaara Sthaapit Neetiyon Aur Kaanoonon Ko Kaaryaanvit Karata Tha.

Sabase Chhote Maatrivansheeya Samudaaya Me Ek Mukhiyaa/Raja Hota Tha, Jo Shresthon Ke Parisad Dvaara Shaashan Karata Tha. Shresthon Ki Parisad— Parivaar Ke Pratinidhiyon Ke Roop Men—Vidhaayi Shaakha Ke Samatulya Thi. Ve Neetiyaan Banaate Aur Agar Zaroorat Padati To Antim Panchon (Nyayedheeshon) Ke Roop Me Kaarya Karate. Neta (Aur Parisad), Dainik Maamalon Ko Nipataane Ke Liye Ek Adhikaari (Raajyapaal, Nyayedheesh) Niyukt Karata Ya Chunata Tha. Usake Paas Vibhinn Saamudaayik Gatividhiyon Ke Liye Adheekshak Hote The. Vah Keval Un Maamalon Ko Sulajhaata Jo Nichale Staron Par Nahi Hal Ho Paate The.

 

[isaka ek ansh:Praacheen Misri Sanskriti Ka Rahasyodghaatan -Vistaarit Dviteeya Sanskaran dvaara likhit Moustafa Gadalla]

par pustak saamagree dekhen https://egypt-tehuti.org/product/praacheen-misri-sanskriti-ka-rahasyodghaatan/

——————————————————————————————————————

Pustak kray aautalet: 

e – printed peparabaik amejan se upalabdh hain.

—–
bee – peedeeeph praaroop mein upalabdh hai …
i- svaroop vikalp daeen or.
ii- googlai pustaken aur googlai play
—–
ch- mobee praaroop mein upalabdh hai …
i- svaroop vikalp daeen or.
ii- amezan
—–
d- eepab praaroop mein upalabdh hai …
i- daeen or ithai praaroop vikalp.
ii- googlai pustaken aur googlai play
iii- ibooks, kobo, b & n (nook) aur smashwords.chom