Dhaatukarm Aur Dhaatu Ke Kaam Ke Baare Me Misri Gyaan

Dhaatukarm Aur Dhaatu Ke Kaam Ke Baare Me Misri Gyaan

 

1.Dhaatukarm Aur Dhaatu Ke Kaam Ke Baare Me Misri Gyaan

Praarambhik Kaal Me Hi Misriyon Ne Dhaatuon Ka Kaam Karana Seekh Liya Tha, Aur Is Baat Par Sabhi Sahamat Hain Ki 5,000 Saal Pahle Hi Praacheen Misriyon Ne Khanan, Pariskarana Tatha Dhaatu Ke Nirmaana Ki Takaneek Vikasit Kar Li Thi.

Praacheen Misr Me Bahut Saare Khanij Ayask Jaise Chaandi, Taamba, Tin, Seesa, Aadi Upalabdh Nahi The, Fir Bhi Unhonne Badi Maatra Me Gilat (Sona Aur Chaandi Ka Mishr Dhaatu), Taambe Aur Kaansya Ke Mishradhaatu Ka Utpaadan Kiya. Praacheen Misriyon Ne Misr Tatha Anya Deshon Me Khanij Ayaskon Ki Khoj Ke Liye Apni Vishesagyata Ka Upayog Kiya. Praacheen Misravaasiyon Ke Paas, Khanij Ayaskon Ki Talaash, Khanan Vyavasthaaon Ki Sthaapna, Aur Bhoomi Tatha Samudra Me Lambi Doori Tak Jaane Ke Liye, Avashyak Saadhan Aur Gyaan Tha.

Praacheen Jagat Ki Sabase Badi Aur Sabase Ameer Abaadi Hone Ke Naate, Misr Me Badi Maatra Me Kachche Maal Ka Ayaat Kiya Jaata Tha, Aur Badale Me Badi Maatra Me Taiyaar Maal Niryaat Kiya Jaata Tha. Praacheen Misr Ke Bane Dhaatu Aur Gair-Dhaatu Utpaad Bhoomadhyasaagareeya Basin, Europeey, Asiaayi Aur Africi Deshon Ke Maqabaron Me Paaye Jaate Hain.

Misravaasiyon Ke Paas Rasaayanashaastraa Wa Dhaatu Oxide Ke Upayog Ka Kaafi Gyaan Tha, Jaisa Ki Vibhinn Rangon Ke Kaanch Wa Cheeni Mitti Ke Utpaadan Ki Unaki Kshamata Se Prakat Hota Hai. Praacheen Misriyon Ne Taambe Se Khoobasoorat Rangon Ka Utpaadan Kiya, Yah Vibhinn Dhaatuon Ki Sanrachana Tatha Vibhinn Padaarthon Par Dharati Ke Lavanaon Ke Prabhaavon Ke Baare Me Unake Gyaan Ko Darshaata Hai. Yah Rasaayan Vigyaan Aur Dhaatu Vigyaan Ki Hamaari ‘‘Aadhunik’’ Paribhasha Ke Saath Mel Khaata Hai.

  • o Rasaayan Vigyaan Padaarthon Ki Sanrachana Aur Guno Se Sambandhit Vigyaan Hai, Jo Padaarthon Ke Utpann Hone Ya Anya Padaarthon Me Parivartit Hone Ke Kaaranaon, Vishist Visaya Ya Gatividhiyon Me Usake Upayogon, Unake Raasaayanik Gunaon, Sanrachanaaon, Pratikriyaaon, Tatha Un Padaarthon Ke Upayogon Ka Adhyayan Karata Hai.
  • o Dhaatu Vigyaan Dhaatuon Ka Vigyaan Hai, Jo Khaasakar Dhaatuon Ko Unake Ayaskon Se Alag Karane, Galaane, Shodhan, Aadi Dvaara Istemaal Ke Liye Taiyaar Kiye Jaane Se Sambandhit Hai.

Dhaatu Ko Pighalaane, Tapaane, Jodane, Taankane Aur Utkeerna Karane Jaise Dhaatukarm Na Keval Behad Prachalit The, Balki Ve Atyadhik Vikasit Bhi The. Praacheen Misri Abhilekhon Me Dhaatukarm Ke Baare Me Dheron Sandarbh Ki Maujoodagi Se Hame Praacheen Misr Me Is Udyog Ke Mahatva Ka Pata Chalata Hai.

Luxor (Thebes) Wa Misr Ke Anya Bhaagon Se Praapt Fooldaan, Darpana, Aur Kaansya Ke Upakarana, Misravaasiyon Ke Dhaatukarm Me Praveenaata Ko Siddh Karate Hain. Unhonne Kaansya Ki Sanrachana Badalane Ke Liye Dhaatu Mishrana Ki Kayi Vivekapoorna Vidhiyon Ko Apnaaya. Berlin Sangrahaalaya Me Rakhe Khanjar Se Yah Pata Chalata Hai Ki, Unhen Kaansya Ya Peetal Ke Bleda Me Ek Nishchit Star Tak Loch Laane Ka Rahasya Bhi Maaloom Tha. Yah Khanjar Apne Bleda Ke Loch Aur Banaavat Ki Baareeki Tatha Utkristata Ke Liye Ullekhaneeya Hai. Europeeya Sangrahaalayon Me Rakhe Hue Bahut Se Praacheen Misri Vastuon Me 10 Se 20% Tin Aur 80 Se 90% Taamba Hota Hai.

Dhaatu Ke Lacheelepan Ke Baare Me Unaka Gyaan, Dhaatu Ke Taaron Aur Dhaage Ke Nirmaana Ki Unaki Kshamata Me Spasht Hai. Taar Banaane Men, Sone Aur Chaandi Ke Saath Hi Peetal Aur Lohe Jaisi Sabase Lacheeli Dhaatuon Ka Istemaal Kiya Jaata Tha. Taar-Nirmaana Ki Prakriya Se Hi Sone Ke Dhaage Aur Taar Banaaye Jaate The, Unhen Chapata Karake Dhaale Jaane Ka Koyi Pramaana Nahi Hai. Twt Homosis (Tuthomosis) Triteeya Ke Maqabare Me Chaandi Ke Taar Paaye Gaye The, Tatha Sone Ke Taar, Osirtasen Pratham Ke Naam Vaali Angoothiyon Se Jude Mile The, Jo Twt Homosis Triteeya (1490-1436 B.C.) Se 600 Saal Puraane The.

Misravaasiyon Ne Dhaatu Se Dhaaga Banaane Ki Kala Ko Siddh Kiya Tha. Yah Kapada Ke Bunaayi Aur Gahanon Ke Liye Kaafi Achchha Tha. Kuchh Aise Utkrist Linen Maujood Hain, Jin Par Sone Ke Dhaage Se Pashuon Ki Anekon Akritiyaan Ukeri Gayi Hain, Aise Kaam Ke Liye Behad Baareeki Aur Saphaayi Ki Zaroorat Hoti Hai.

Praacheen Misravaasi Dhaatu Ke Utpaadon Aur Vastuon Ke Nirmaana Me Behad Unnat The, Aur Ve Badi Maatra Me Anekon Tarah Ke Mishrana Vaale Mishr Dhaatuon Ka Utpaadan Kar Sakate The. Unake Gyaan Ki Abhivyakti Ke Udaaharan Age Diye Gaye Hain.

 

2. Sunahare Rajat (Gilat) Ke Utpaad:

Praacheen Misriyon Ne Sone Ka Upayog Kiya, Jo Misr Ki Khaanon Se Nikalate The. Unhonne Chaandi Ka Bhi Istemaal Kiya, Jo Misr Me Nahi Paaya Jaata Tha, Magar Iberian Praayadveep Se Ayaat Kiya Jaata Tha. Ve Chaandi Ke Mishr Dhaatu Me Keval Chaandi Ya Sone-Chaandi Ke Mishrana Ka Istemaal Karate The, Inhen Gilat Kaha Jaata Tha. Praacheen Misri Abhilekhon Se Sanket Milata Hai Ki—Brahmaanda Ke Urja Ke Srot Ke Roop Men—Neteru (Devi-Devata) Gilat Ke Bane Hain. Moortiyon, Taaveez Aadi Jaise Dhaarmik Vastuon Ko Banaane Ke Alaava, Is Mishrana Ko Akshar Vyaktigat Shrringaar Aur Sajaavati Vastuon Ke Liye Istemaal Kiya Jaata Tha. Chaandi Aur Sone Ka Anupaat Amataur Par Do Aur Teen Ka Hota Tha. Twt Homosis Triteeya (1490-1436 Eisa Poorv) Ke Kaal Ke Ek Praacheen Misri Papyrus Se Sanket Milata Hai Ki Ek Adhikaari Ne Kaafi ‘‘Badi Maatraa’’ Me Gilat Praapt Kiya Tha, Jisaka Vazan Tha-36,392 Yooten, Yaani 7,286 Pound Arthaat 3,311 Kilo 672 Graam.

Theek Taambe Aur Kaanse Jaise Hi, Sone Aur Chaandi Se Bhi Chhotee-Chhoti Moortiyaan Banaayi Jaati Theen. Ye Do Dhaatuen Akshar Thos Manake Ke Roop Me Paayi Jaati Hain, Jo Kam Se Kam 6,000 Saal Puraani Hain.

Beni Hassan Ke Madhya Saamraajya Ke Maqabaron Ke Drishya Sunaar Ke Dhndhe Ki Taraf Ishaara Karate Hain. In Maqabaron Men, Sunaar Ke Kayi Kaaryon Ko Darshaaya Gaya Hai, Jaise Ayask Ko Dhone Ki Prakriya, Foonkane Vaali Nali Ki Madad Se Galaane Ya Pighalaane Ki Prakriya, Sajaavati Uddeshyon Ke Liye Taiyaar Karana, Vazan Karana, Saamagri Ki Soochi Ko Darj Karana Ityaadi Ke Saath-Saath Anya Kamon Ko Darshaaya Gaya Hai.

Jab Sona Thos Roop Me Dhala Nahi Hota Tha, To Yah Samatal Motaayi Ki Chapati Chaadar Hota Tha. Sone Ki Chaadar Ka Istemaal Furniture Ko Sajaane Ke Liye Kiya Jaata Tha. Sone Ki Moti Chaadaron Ko Seedhe Lakadi Par Thonka Jaata Aur Use Chhote-Chhote Swarna Keelon Ki Sahaayata Se Jad Diya Jaata Tha. Patali Chaadaron Ko Plaster Ke Bane Adhaar Par Chipakane Vaale Padaarth Ki Sahaayata Se Ya Shaayad Gond Se Chipakaaya Jaata Tha. Moortiyon, Mummyion Ke Mukhauton, Taabooton Tatha Anya Vastuon Ki Koting Me Istemaal Ki Gayi Chaadaren Bahut Achchhi Kism Ki Theen. Ise Plaster Ki Parat Ke Upar Lagaaya Gaya Tha, Lekin Isake Liye Misri Shilpakaar Dvaara Istemaal Kiye Gaye Gond Ki Pahachaan Nahi Ho Saki Hai.

Misravaasiyon Ke Dher Saari Saamagriyon Ke Istemaal Karane Ki Kshamata Ka Pata, Kahira Ke Sangrahaalaya Me Rakhe, Twtankhamen (Tutankhamen) Ke 300 Pound (136 Kg) Ke Sone Ke Taaboot Se Chalata Hai.

 

3. Taamr Aur Kaansya Ke Utpaad:

Praacheen Misr Me Taamba Aur Kaansya Ke Mishr Dhaatu—Taambe, Arsenic Aur Tin—Banaane Ke Liye Khanij Ayaskon Ki Kami Thi—Isaliye Inhen Videshon Se Mngaaya Jaata Tha. Kareeb 5000 Saal Se Bhi Zayaada Pahle, Praacheen Misravaasi Badi Maatra Me In Mishr Dhaatuon Ka Nirmaana Karate The.

Misr Ka Taamba Arsenic Ke Mishrana Se Kathor Ho Jaata Tha. Kaanse Ke Mishr Dhaatu Me Arsenic Ki Maatra Zaroorat Ke Anusaar Bhinn-Bhinn Hoti Thi. Mishrana Me Bhinnata Ke Kayi Udaaharan Maujood Hain, Jaise: Khanjar Aur Farase Ke Dhaaradaar Kinaare Kaafi Sakht Hote The, Jiname Lage Taambe Me 4% Arsenic Hota Tha, Jabaki Fal Aur Nonk Me 2 % Arsenic Vaala Taamba Laga Hota Tha. Arsenic Vaale Taambe Ka Istemaal Rajvansh Kaal Ke Pahle (5000 Eisa Poorv), Aur Aur Madhya Saamraajya (2040-1783 B.C.) Ke Daur Me Hota Tha.

Praacheen Misri Patthar (Jise ‘‘Palermo Stone’’ Ke Naam Se Jaana Jaata Hai, Jo Ab Palermo Sangrahaalaya Me Sangraheet Hai) Par Doosare Rajvansh Ke Khasekhemwy (2890—2649 B.C.) Ki Taambe Ki Pratima Ke Nirmaana Ka Byaura Darj Hai. Kahira Sangrahaalaya Me Rakhi, Pepi Pratham (2889—2255 B.C.) Ki Taamr Pratima, Dhaatu Ki Moorti Ka Sabase Puraana Udaaharan Hai. Praarambhik Kritiyon Ki Durlabhata Ka Kaaran Nissandeh Dhaatuon Ki Bahumoolya Prakriti Hai, Jis Vajah Se Dhaatuon Ko Baar-Baar Pighala Ke Punah Upayog Me Laaya Jaata Tha.

Arsenic Vaale Taambe Ke Nirmaana Ke Alaava, Praacheen Misravaasi Kaansya Ki Vastuon Ka Bhi Nirmaana Karate The. Taambe Me Tin Ka Ek Chhota Sa Aansh Milaane Se Kaansya Banata Hai, Jisase Galanaank Me Kami Ati Hai, Kathorata Me Vriddhi Hoti Hai Aur Dhaalana Asaan Ho Jaata Hai. Mishrana Me Tin Ka Aansh 0. 1 % Se 10% Ke Beech Alag-Alag Hota Hai. Atynt Praacheen Kaal Ki Kayi Kaansya Vastuen Paayi Gayi Hain. Pepi Pratham (2289—2255 B.C.) Ke Naam Vaale Belan Ki Saaf-Suthari Kataav Rekhaayen, Tatha Anya Kaansya Lekh, Ingit Karate Hain Ki Kaansya Vastuon Ke Nirmaana Ka Itihaas 2200 Eisa Poorv Se Bhi Puraana Hai.

Kaansya Udyog Desh Ke Liye Behad Mahatvapoorna Tha. Misr Me Kaansya Ko Bade Bartanon, Upakaranaon Aur Hathiyaaron Ke Nirmaana Ke Liye Taiyaar Kiya Jaata Tha. Puraane Saamraajya (2575-2150 B.C.) Ke Baad Se Samooche Itihaas Me Khare Kaansya Ke Kayi Udaaharan Maujood Hain, Jaise Posno Sangrah, Jo Ab Paris Ke Louvre Me Sangraheet Hai.

Kapade Me Behad Khyaal Se Lapeti Gayin Vibhinn Prakaar Ki Praacheen Misri Ghantiyaan Praapt Huyi Hain, Jo Maqabaron Me Rakhe Jaane Se Poorv Ki Avastha Me Hain. Kahira Sangrahaalaya Me Ab Aisi Dher Saari Ghantiyaan Rakhi Huyi Hai.

Ghante Mukhyatah Kaansya Ke Banate The, Lekin Kabhi-Kabhi Ve Sone Ya Chaandi Se Bhi Banaaye Jaate The. Ve Vibhinn Swaroopon Ke Hote The. Kuchh Ghantiyon Ke Mukh Vaale Bhaag Me Daant Hote The, Jo Pusp Ke Putak Ke Prateek Hote The. Praacheen Misri Ghantiyon Ke Dher Saare Dhaanche (Kahira Sangrahaalaya Me Sangraheet, Cat. 32315 A, B) Praacheen Misr Me Dhaatu Ki Dhalaayi Ka Thos Suboot Pesh Karate Hain. In Saanchon Me Taral Dhaatu Daalane Ke Liye Bane Pravesh Chhed Spasht Roop Se Dekha Ja Sakata Hai. Praacheen Misri Ghanti Ke Raasaayanik Vishlesana Me 82. 4% Taamba, 16. 4% Tin Aur 1. 2 % Seesa Paaya Gaya.

Naye Saamraajya Ke Lekhon Se Pata Chalata Hai, Ki Misravaasi Vibhinn Prakaar Ka Kaansya Mishr Banaate The, Jaisa Ki Isame ‘‘Kaale Kaansy’’ Aur ‘‘Chhah Ke Sanyojan Vaale Kaansy’’, Arthaat Chhah Guna Mishrana Vaale Dhaatu Ka Ullekh Aam Hai. Is Tarah Ki Vibhinnataaon Ke Kaaran Ve Vibhinn Rangon Ke Hote The. Peela Peetal Jasta Aur Taambe Ka Mishrana Tha. Jabaki Safed (Aur Behtar) Peetal Me Chaandi Ka Mishrana Kiya Jaata Tha, Jinaka Prayog Darpanaon Ke Liye Kiya Jaata Tha, Aur Inhen ‘‘Corinthian Peetal’’ Bhi Kahate Hain. Is Yaugik Me Taamba Ke Milaane Par Lagabhag Sone Jaisa Peelaapn Utpann Hota Tha.

Taambe Aur Kaansya Se Vibhinn Prakaar Ke Gharelu Bartanon, Jaise Ki Kadaah, Ghada, Kathauti, Aur Kalachhul, Ke Saath-Saath, Khanjar, Talavaar, Bhaala, Aur Kulhaadiyon, Jaise Yuddhak Hathiyaaron Wa Upakaranaon Ke Liye Bhi Saamagri Praapt Hoti Thi. Puraane Aur Madhya Saamraajya Ke Daur Men, Yuddh Ki Kulhaadiyon Ke Gol-Gol Aur Ardhavrittaakaar Swaroop Ka Prachalan Tha.

Beni Hassan Ke Maqabaron Ke Chitraon Jaise Madhya Saamraajya Kaal (2040-1783 B.C.) Se Jude Abhilekhon Me Praacheen Misri Hathiyaaron Ki Vibhinnataayen Dekhane Ko Milati Hai, Jaise Ki Neeche Chitrit Dhaal Ke Alag-Alag Tarah Ke Dilachasp Prakaar.

Naye Saamraajya (1550-1070 B.C.) Ke Dauraan Praacheen Misriyon Ne Apni Seemaaon Ki Raksha Ke Liye Ek Badi Sena Ki Khaadi Ki. Misravaasiyon Ne Apni Sena Me Bhaade Ke Sainikon Ko Rakha Aur Unake Liye Avashyak Yuddh Upakaranaon Ka Nirmaana Kiya.

Athaarahaven Rajvansh (1575-1335 B.C.) Ke Daur Men, Ek Surakshit Aur Samriddh Misr Badi Maatra Me Dhaatu Ke Saamaanon Ka Utpaadan Karane Me Saksham Tha. Vastuon Ki Sankhya Me Is Vriddhi Ke Saath-Saath Khanan Gatividhiyon Me Vriddhi Aur Isi Avadhi Ke Dauraan Iberian Maqabaron Me Misri Taambe Aur Kaansya Vastuon Ki Sankhya Me Vriddhi Ke Baare Me Agale Adhyaaya Ke Ant Me Charcha Ki Gayi Hai.

Kareeb 5000 Saal Se Bhi Zayaada Pahle, Praacheen Misr Me Badi Maatra Me Taamba, Arsenic, Aur Tin Ki Maang Paida Huyi. In Teenon Khanij Ayaskon Ka Ayaat, Praacheen Vishv Ke Ekamaatr Gyaat Srot—Iberia Se Hota Tha. Puraataatvik Abhilekh, Dakshini Iberia Ke Taambe Aur Arsenic Ke Khanij Sampada Ke Praarambhik Upayog Ko Darshaate Hain. Jahaan Tak Tin Ki Baat Hai, To Ham ‘‘Tin Maarg’’ Ke Baare Me Achchhi Tarah Se Jaanate Hain, Jo Iberian Praayadveep Ke Pashchimi Tat Par Sthit Tha, Jahaan Tin Galicia Aur Sambhavatah Cornwall Se Ata Tha. Strabo, Apni Geography Ke Khanda 3 Me Likhata Hai, Ki,

Tin … Khoda Gaya,  Aur Yah Lusitania Se Door Barbaron Ke Desh Tatha Cassiterides Dveep, Dono Me Paida Hota Hai Aur Tin British Dveep Samooh Se Massilia Laaya Jaata Hai.

Poorvi Bhoomadhya Kshetra—Arthaat Praacheen Misr—Se Ane Vaale ‘‘Tin Maarg’’ Ke Saath Shuruaati Samparkon Ka Pramaana Moustafa Gadalla Dvaara Likhit Pustak Egyptian Romany: The Essence Of Hispania Me Diya Gaya Hai.

 

4. Chamakadaar (Kaanch Aur Sheeshe) Utpaad

Praacheen Misravaasiyon Ne Kayi Tarah Ke Chamakeeli Vastuon Ka Nirmaana Kiya, Vo Bhi Poorv-Rajvansh Kaal (5000 B.C.) Se Bhi Puraane Kaal Men. Ye Shuruaati Chamakate Vastu Amataur Par Manake Ki Shakl Me Hote The, Jinaka Kor Thos Quartz Ya Saabun Patthar Ka Hota Tha. Saabun Patthar Ka Prayog Taaveez, Pendant, Aur Neteru (Devi/Devataaon) Ki Nanheen Moortiyon Jaisi Chhoti Cheezaon Ko Banaane Ke Liye Kiya Jaata Tha. Saabun Patthar Ki Bani Huyi Chamakadaar Cheezen Samooche Rajvansheeya Kaal (3050-343 B.C.) Ke Dauraan Milati Hain, Aur Yah Misri Gubaraila Banaane Ki Sabase Aam Saamagri Thi. Chamakadaar Takaneek Ka Istemaal Antyesti Ke Upakaranaon (Taaveez, Shabati Ki Moortiyon) Aur Gharelu Sajaavat (Taayilon, Pusp Akritiyon Ko Jadana) Ki Cheezen Banaane Ke Liye Kiya Jaata Tha.

Praacheen Misr Ki Chamakadaar Vastuon Ki Vividhata Aur Uchch Gunvatta Dhaatu Vigyaan Ke Baare Me Praacheen Misri Gyaan Ko Darshaata Hai. Misri Sheeshe Ka Sabase Aam Rang Neela, Hara Ya Neela-Hara Tha. Ye Rang Taambe Ke Yaugik Ko Milaane Ke Kaaran Utpann Hota Tha. Taambe Aur Chaandi Ka Mishrana Se Sabase Shaanadaar Parinaam Milate The.

Praacheen Misri Kaanch Behad Garm Quartz Ret Aur Natron Se Banate The, Jinamne Taambe Ka Mishrana Ya Malachite Jaise Rangane Vaale Padaarthon Ko Mila Kar Hare Wa Neele Kaanch Taiyaar Kiye Jaate The. Ayaat Kiye Gaye Cobalt Ka Bhi Upayog Kiya Jaata Tha. Saamagri Ko Pighalaane Ke Baad, Jab Usaka Dravyamaan Ichchhit Star Par Pahunch Jaata To Garmaana Rok Diya Jaata. Taral Ke Thnda Hone Par, Use Saanche Me Daal Diya Jaata, Ya Patale Chhadon, Kain Ya Anya Roopon Me Dhaal Diya Jaata Tha.

Sheeshe Ko Pighalaane Ke Chitra, Saqqara Sthit Ti Ke Maqabare (2465-2323 B.C.), Beni Hassan (4000 Varsh Se Puraane) Tatha Anya Maqabaron Me Darshaaye Gaye Hain.

Choonki Chamakeele Rogan Ko Banaane Ke Liye Theek Unheen Tatvon Ko Theek Usi Tareeke Pighalaaya Jaata Hai, Jaise Kaanch Me Hota Hai, Isaliye Kaanch Banaane Ka Shreya Bhi Praacheen Kaal Ke Misravaasiyon Ko Hi Milana Chaahiye. Sakht Chamakadaar Rogan Me Bilkul Sheeshe Jaise Guna Hote Hain. Kaanch Ke Bartan Banaane Me Istemaal Ki Jaane Vaali Takaneek, Darasal Chamakadaar Padaarth Banaane Ki Takaneek Ka Hi Praakritik Vistaar Hai.

Chauthe Rajvansh (2575-2465 B.C.) Ke Smaarakon Me Kaanch Ke Botal Darshaaya Gaya Hai. Misr Ke Rang-Birange Kaanch Ki Botalon Ko Yunan, Etruria, Italy Aur Anya Deshon Me Niryaat Kiya Jaata Tha.

Praacheen Misravaasiyon Ne Kaanch Ko Rang-Biranga Swaroop Pradaan Kar In Saamagriyon Ke Guno Ke Baare Me Apne Utkrist Gyaan Ko Pradarshit Kiya, Jaisa Ki Luxor (Thebes) Ke Maqabaron Me Paaye Gaye Tukadon Me Dikhaayi Deta Hai. Is Jatil Prakriya Me Unake Mahaarath Ne Unhen Keemati Pattharon Ka Nakal Kar Paane Ke Kaabil Banaaya. Unake Dvaara Banaaye Gaye Kuchh Nakali Moti Itani Achchhi Tarah Se Nakal Kiye Gaye Hain Ki Kisi Shaktishaali Lens Se Bhi Asali Aur Nakali Me Phark Kar Paana Mushkil Hai. Pliny Ne Is Baat Ki Pushti Ki Hai Ki Ve Nakal Me Itane Paarangat Ho Chuke The Ki Bilkul Asali Jaisa Nakali Bana Sakate The,

Asali Aur Nakali Pattharon Ke Beech Pharq Karana Mushkil Hai.

In Nakali Javaaharaaton Ke Rangon Ki Chhata Niraali Hai—Paaradarshi Neele Rang Vaale Laajavart, Chatakh Neele Neelam Aur Chheentadaar Sunahare Rang Ke Korneliyan Misr Ke Abhoosana Kala Ke Sabase Pramukh Namoone Hain. Lekin Gomed, Jamuniyaan, Aur Hematait Bhi Prachalan Me The. Isake Alaava, Hame Yah Dhyaan Rakhana Chaahiye Ki Misri Kaareegaron Ne Bade-Bade Tukadon Ko Chitraalekhon Se Saja Kar Meenaakaari Ka Adbhut Nazaara Pesh Kiya.

Vibhinn Tukadon Se Kaanch Ke Mojaik Banaaye Jaate The, Jinhen Alag-Alag Banaaya Jaata Tha, Aur Fir Garmi Se Pighala Kar Ek Bana Diya Jaata Tha. Praacheen Misr Ke Kaanch Ke Mojaik Adbhut Aur Shaanadaar Rang Ke Hote The.

Kaanch Ka Istemaal Klauijanaaye Ke Naam Se Jaani Vaali Kala Me Bharapoor Hota Hai, Yah Shabd  Dhaatu Ke Koson Par Kaanch, Faayines Ya Pattharon Ko Seement Ke Jod Kar Ki Jaane Vaale Jadaau Meenaakaari Ke Liye Istemaal Kiya Jaata Hai. Is Prakriya Ke Tahat Kaanch Ke Paaudaar Ko Kloisan Me Daala Jaata Hai, Aur Us Paaudaar Ko Tab Tak Garm Kiya Jaata Hai Jab Tak Vah Pighal Kar Sugathit Nahi Ho Jaata.

Praacheen Misr Me Kaanch Ke Bartan, Taayil Aur Mitti Ke Anya Cheezen Mukhya Udyog The. Kuchh Taayil Behad Chamakeele Aur Gahare Neele Rang Ke Banaaye Jaate The. Ve Dhaatu Ke Indradhanusi Chamak Vaale Mitti Ke Paatr Bhi Banaate The.

[Berlin Ke Sangrahaalay Men Rakha, Ek Hi Sar Vaali Teen Machhaliyon Aur Teen Kamal Ke Phoolon Ki Painting Se Saja Mitti Ka Ek Khoobsoorat Misri Katora.]

Kuchh Taayilon Ko Dhaatu (Taamba, Mainganeej, Cobalt, Aadi) Ke Oxide Aur Kshaareeya Silikets Ke Paani Ke Saath Mishrana Dvaara Banaaye Gaye Rangon Se Ranga Gaya Hai. Saqqara Me Lagabhag 4,500 Saalon Se Behtareen Gunvatta Vaali Chamakadaar Taayilen Milati Hain. 1924-26 Me Loyar Aur Firth Ne Saqqara Me Step Pyramid Se Keval 700 Feet (300 Meter) Ki Doori Par Sthit ‘‘Dakshini Maqabare’’ Ko Bilkul Surakshit Avastha Me Khoja Tha. Theek Step Pyramid Ke Dafan Kakshon Ki Tarah Hi Isake Bhi Kayi Kaksh Neeli Taayilon Se Yukt Hain.

 

5. Lohe Ke Utpaad:

Halanki Pyramid ‘‘Kaansya Aur Lauh Yug’’ Se Pahle Banaaye Gaye The, Firabhi Us Yug Ke Logon Ko Ulke Ke Lohe Ka Gyaan Tha. Lohe Ka Praacheen Misri Naam Bja Tha. Saqqara Parisar (Lagabhag 4,500 Varsh Puraane) Se Praapt Unas Ke Antyesti (Pyramid) Lekhon Men—Uft—Me Bja Shabd Ka Baar-Baar Ullekh Kiya Gaya Hai- Jo Sitaare Rajaon Ki ‘‘Hadadaiyon’’ Se Sambandhit Hain.

Main Shuddh Hoon, Main Apne Liye Apne Lohe (Bja) Ki Hadadaiyaan Le Jaata Hoon, Main Apne Avinaashi Angon Ko Phailaata Hoon Jo Noot Ke Garbh Me Hain … (Uft 530)

Meri Hadadaiyaan Lauh (Bja) Hain Aur Mere Ang Avinaashi Taare Hain. (Uft 1454)

Raja Ki Hadadaiyaan Lauh (Bja) Hain Aur Usake Ang Avinaashi Sitaare Hain … (Uft 2051)

Praacheen Misr Me Lohe Ka Upayog Hota Tha, Aur Misri Registaan Me Lauh Ki Khadaanen Dekhi Ja Sakati Hain. Herodotus Ne Pyramid Ke Nirmaataaon Dvaara Lohe Ke Aujaaron Ke Istemaal Kiye Jaane Ka Ullekh Kiya Hai. Herodotus Ke Baat Ki Pushti, Unneesaveen Shataabdi Ke Misri Puraatatvavettaaon Dvaara Vibhinn Sthaanon Par Khoje Gaye Chinaayi Ke Praacheen Aujaaron Me Shaamil Lauh Upakaranaon Se Hoti Hai. Isake Alaava, Luxor (Thebes) Ke Smaarak Aur Yahaan Tak Ki 4,500 Saal Puraane Maimfis Ke Asapaas Ke Maqabaron Me Kasaayiyon Ko Apne Epran Se Jude Dhaatu Ke Ek Gol Tukade Par Apne Chaakooon Ko Tez Karate Dikhaaya Gaya Hai, Jisaka Neela Rang Usake Steel Hone Ka Sanket Deta Hai. Ramses Triteeya Ke Maqabare Me Kaanse Aur Lohe Ke Hathiyaaron Ke Beech Bhed Karane Ke Liye Ek Ko Laal Rang Se Aur Doosare Ko Neele Rang Se Ranga Gaya Hai, Jisase Kisi Shaq Ki Gunjaayish Nahi Bachati Ki Dono Ek Hi Kaal Me Prayog Kiye Jaate The.

Homer Ne Apne Iliad (XXIII, 261) Me Lohe Ke Istemaal Ki Vishes Roop Se Zikr Kiya Hai, Ki Jab Laal Garm Dhaatu Ko Paani Me Dauboya Jaata Hai To Vah Kaise Funfakaarata Hai.

Pashchimi Pandaito Dvaara Kiya Jaane Vaala, ‘‘Dhaatu Vikaas’’ (Taamba, Kaansa, Loha, Ityaadi) Ka Mannmaana Kaalnirdhaaran Bilkul Niraadhaar Hai. Lohe Ki Jaanakaari Aur Upayog Me A Jaane Ke Baad Bhi Lambe Arse Tak Lagabhag Sabhi Raastr Kaanse Ki Talavaaron, Khanjaron, Wa Anya Hathiyaaron Evam Rakshaatmak Kavachon Ka Upayog Karate Rahe. Pashchimi Pandait, Misravaasiyon Dvaara Lohe Ke Utpaadon Ke Baare Me Gyaan Aur Upayog Se Inakaar Karate Hain, Kyonki Praacheen Misravaasiyon Ne Kabhi Bhi Kaansya Vastuon Ka Upayog Karana Nahi Chhoda. Doosari Or Kaanse Ke Bane Yunani Aur Roman Hathiyaaron Ko Lekar Pashchimi Pandito Dvaara Kabhi Aisa Daava Nahi Kiya Gaya Ki Yunani Aur Roman Lohe Se Anajaan The. Atah Praacheen Misravaasiyon Ke Lohe Ke Utpaadon Ke Gyaan Aur Utpaadan Ki Baat Ko Mannmaane Dhang Se Jhuthalaaya Nahi Ja Sakata.

 

6. Misr Ka Khanan Anubhav            

Praacheen Misr Ki Vyavasthit Sabhyata Me Misravaasi Apne Abhilekhon Ko Darj Karate The, Jisame Khanan Gatividhiyon Ki Vyavastha Aur Unake Abhiyaanon Ki Prakriti Ke Baare Me Byaura Milata Hai. Praacheen Misr Ke Bache Hue Abhilekh, 5,000 Varson Se Bhi Pahle, Misr Aur Misr Se Itar Anekon Sthaanon Par Khanan Gatividhiyon Ki Jabaradast Vyavastha Dikhaate Hain.

Sinaayi Praayadveep Me Seraabit-Al-Khaadem Sthit Neelam Ke Khaanon Me Vishuddh Praacheen Misri Shaili Ki Khadaan Dikhaayi Deti Hai, Jisame Dhyaanapoorvak Taraashe Gaye Konon Ke Saath Lambavat Evam Kshaitij Maarg Tatha Gufaaon Ka Netavark Hai—Theek Vaise Hi Jaise Praacheen Misr Ke Har Daur Ke Khadaanon Me Hota Tha. Praacheen Misravaasi Pahaadon Me Gahari Aur Lambi Kataayi Karane Tatha Khodi Gayi Shaft Aur Surangon Ko Mazaboot Tek Wa Sahaara Dene Me Saksham The. Surangon Aur Shafton Me Bhoomigat Paani Ke Risaav Ko Surakshit Roop Se Baahar Pump Kar Diya Jaata Tha. Paani Ke Ye Misri Pump Duniya Bhar Me Prasiddh The, Jinaka Istemaal Iberia Ke Khanan Kaaryon Me Kiya Gaya Tha, Jisaki Pushti Strabo [Geography, (3. 2. 9)]Ke Nimn Kathan Se Hoti Hai:

Poseidonius  Ka Arth Hai Ki Turdetanian Khanik Bhi Samaan Hain, Kyonki Ve Apne Khaan Me Jaane Vaale Maarg Ko Ada Aur Gahara Kaatate Hain, Aur Is Tarah Khaan Ke Maarg Me Milane Vaale Laharen Unhen Misri Pench Ke Saath Pare Hata Deti Hain.

Behad Dhaarmik Misravaasi Pratyek Khanan Sthal Par Smaarak Shilaapatt Ke Saath-Saath Hamesha Mandiron/Teerthon Ka Nirmaana Karate The. Theek Yahi Parampara Misr Se Baahar Ke Khanan Sthalon Par Bhi Dekhane Ko Milati Hai, Jaise Ki Iberian Praayadveep, Jahaan Ke Khaanon Se Chaandi, Taamba, Aadi Na Jaane Kab Se Nikaale Ja Rahe Hain.

Sinaayi Praayadveep Me Seraabit-Al-Khaadim Sthit Khanan Sthal Theth Praacheen Misri Khanan Sthal Hai, Jisame ‘‘Neelam Ki Naari’’ Kahi Jaane Vaali, Hathor Ka Chhota Sa Mandir Ek Chattaani Chabootare Bana Hai, Jo Chauthe Rajvansh (2575-2465 B.C.) Ya Sambhavatah Usase Bhi Bahut Pahle Ka Ho. Baad Me Is Mandir Me Naye Saamraajya Ke Rajaon Dvaara Vriddhi Ki Gayi, Khaasakar Twt Homosis Triteeya Dvaara. Mandir Ke Saamane, Kam Se Kam Adhe Mile Tak Ek Raasta Hai, Jis Par Dher Saare Vishaal Shilaapatt Lage Hain, Jo Chaaron Taraf Se Khanan Abhiyaan Se Sambandhit Varnaanon Se Bhare Pade Hain. Samooche Misr Ke Pratyek Khanan Sthal Par Kaarya Ka Varnaan Karane Vaale Shilaapatt Paaye Jaate Hain.

Sinaayi Sthit Vaadi Maghaara Ki Khadaanon Men, Aaj Bhi Kaamagaaron Ke Liye Pattharon Ki Jhopaadiyon Ke Saath-Saath Ek Chhota Sa Kila Maujood Hai, Jise Vahaan Kaam Kar Rahe Misriyon Ko Sinaayi Ke Badduon Ke Hamalon Se Bachaane Ke Liye Banaaya Gaya Tha. In Khadaanon Se Paani Bahut Door Nahi Tha, Aur Kile Me Paani Sanrakshit Karane Ke Liye Taalaab The. Waadi Maghara Ki Khaanen, Sampoorna Rajvansh Kaal (3050-343 B.C.) Ke Dauraan Sakriya Raheen.

Redesieh Ke Registaani Mandir Me Unneesaven Rajvansh Ke Shilaalekh Bataate Hain, Ki Raja Seti Pratham (1333-1304 Eisa Poorv) Ne Khanan Kaaryon Tatha Khanan Karmiyon Dono Ke Liye Paani Upalabdh Karaane Hetu Kuaan Khodane Ke Liye Sangataraason Ko Niyukt Kiya Tha. Jab Kuaan Ban Gaya Tab, Ek Steshan Aur ‘‘Mandir Ke Saath Ek Shahar’’ Banaaya Gaya. Ramesses Dviteeya (1304-1237 B.C.), Ke Uttaraadhikaari, Khanan Sthalon Ko Jaane Vaale Sadakon Par Jahaan Kaheen Bhi Zaroorat Thi, Vahaan Atirikt Paani Upalabdh Karaane Hetu Kuaan Khodane Ki Yojana Me Madhyasthata Ki Thi.

Pratyek Khanan Sthal Par Unake Vaastavik Yojanaaon Ke Anuroop Yojana Banaayi Jaati. Sthaanon Ke Maanachitra Vaali Do Praacheen Misri Papyri Paayi Gayi Hain, Jo Ki Firaaun Seti Pratham Tatha Remesas Ke Shaashankaal Ke Dauraan Sone Ke Khanan Se Sambandhit Hai. Aanshik Roop Se Sanrakshit Ek Papyrus Jo Ramesses Dviteeya Ke Daur Ka Hai, Poorvi Registaan Me Bechen Parvat Ke Sone Vaale Ilaaqe Ka Pratinidhitva Karata Hai. Praapt Papyrus Ke Sthal Yojana Me Ek Pahaadi Ke Beech Ek Doosare Ke Samaanaantar Do Ghaatiyaan Darshaayi Gayi Hain. Registaan Ki Kayi Anya Badi Ghaatiyon Ki Tarah, In Ghaatiyon Me Se Ek Ghaati Me Paani Dhaar Se Mitti Ke Kataav Ko Rokane Ke Liye Jhaadiyan Aur Patthar Hain. Taiyaar Sthal Yojana Me Us Sthal Se Jude Anya Pramukh Vivaranaon Ko Darshaaya Gaya Hai,  Jaise Ki Khanan Sthal Ke Bheetar Sadak Ka Netavark Tatha Baahari Sadak Se Usaka Judaav, Aur ‘‘Samudra Ki Or Jaane Vaala Maarg’’. Is Sthal Yojana Me Ayask Dhaatuon Ke Prashodhan (Jaise Dhulaayi, Aadi), Chhote Gharon, Bhndaarana Kshetraon, Vibhinn Bhavanon, Chhote Mandir, Wa Paani Ki Tanki Ko Darshaaya Gaya Hai. Khanan Sthal Par Kaam Kar Rahe Shramikon Ke Liye Khaadyaann Ugaane Vaali Kheti Ki Zameen Ko Khanan Sthal Ke Asapaas Ke Kshetra Me Darshaaya Gaya Hai.

Praacheen Misri Abhilekh Khanan Sthalon Ke Vibhinn Vibhaagon Aur Shramashakti Ki Vishesataaon Ko Bhi Darshaate Hain. Praacheen Misri Abhilekh Khanan Kaaryon Ke Sangathanaatmak Dhaanche Ko Darshaate Hain. Praacheen Misr Ke Bache Hue Abhilekhon Me Vibhinn Adhikaariyon Ke Naam Aur Padanaam Diye Gaye Hain, Jinhonne Puraane Aur Madhya Saamraajyon Ke Dauraan Hammamat Me Kaam Ka Nirdeshan Kiya Tha, Jo Poorvi Registaan Ke Bechen Ke Khaanon Me Sthit Hai. Unhonne Isame Injeeniyaron, Khanikon, Dhaatukarmiyon, Rajageeron, Vaastukaaron, Kalaakaaron Aur Suraksha Vivaranaon Ke Saath-Saath Jahaaz Ke Kaptaanon Ko Shaamil Kiya Jo Abhiyaan Ke Naugamya Jal Me Pahunchane Par Jahaazon Ke Bhaagon Ko Vyavasthit Rakhate Hain.

Neel Nadi Ghaati Se Hokar Misr Ki Ghani Abaadi Vaale Kshetraon Se Bhaari Suraksha Ke Beech Guzarane Se Pahle, Dhaatu Ayask Ko Khanan Sthal Par Hi Parishodhit Kar Diya Jaata Tha.

Misr Ke Khanan Gatividhiyaan Behad Vyavasthit Theen, Jisamen, Log Khanan Sthalon Ke Kaam Ki Jaanch Karane, Uchit Sanchaalan Sunishchit Karane Tatha Karmachaariyon Ke Niyamit Roteshan Ke Saath Hi Saath In Kilenuma Kaaryasthalon Ko Suvidhaayen Pradaan Karane Ke Liye Age Aur Peechhe Yatrayen Karate The.

Praacheen Misri Raja Pepi Pratham (2289—2255 B.C.) Ke Daur Ke Abhilekhon Me Khadaanon Ke Nideshakon Aur Khanan Sthal Ka Nirikshan Daura Karane Vaale Uchch Adhikaariyon Ke Naam Tatha Padanaam Diye Gaye Hain. Shilaalekhon Me Kayi Padanamon Ka Ullekh Milata Hai, Jaise: ‘‘Samast Kaaryon Ke Mukhya Nireekshak’’, Aur ‘‘Mukhya Vaastukaar’’ Aadi. Is Bade Adami Ne Hammamaat Ka Do Baar Nirikshan Daura Kiyaa—Ek Baar Apne Sahaayak Ke Saath, Aur Ek Baar Balidaan Ayog Ke Adhikshak Ke Saath Jab Mandir Ki Deevaaron Par Dhaarmik Lekhon Ki Baat Thi.

Ramesses Chaturth (1163-1156 B.C.) Ke Shaashankaal Ke Ek Abhilekh Se Ek Abhiyaan Ke Baare Me Pata Chalata Hai, Jo Poorvi Registaan Ke Bechen Ke Pahaad Par ‘‘Kaarya Adheekshak’’ Ke Netritva Me Kiya Gaya Tha. Is Abhiyaan Me Kul 8,368 Log Shaamil The. In Logon Me 50 Se Adhik Civil Adhikaariyon Aur Pujaariyon Ke Saath Hi Saath Vibhinn Vibhaagon Ke 200 Adhikaari Shaamil The. Kshetra Ka Kaarya Khanikon, Sangataraason Aur Anya Sambandhit Karmiyon Dvaara Kiya Jaata Tha, Jo Teen Nireekshakon Aur ‘‘Mukhya Nireekshak’’ Ke Adheen Kaam Kaam Karate The. Shramik Kaarya 5000 Khanikon, Dhaatukarmiyon, Rajageeron Aadi, Tatha 2,000 Vibhinn Prakaar Ke Shramikon Dvaara Poora Kiya Jaata Tha. Suraksha Bandobast Ke Liye Bhaade Ke 800 Barbar Sainikon Ki Nigaraani Ke Liye Kam Se Kam 110 Adhikaari Hote The. Suraksha Bal Ki Zaroorat, Khanan Sthalon Ki Suraksha Tatha Saamagri Aur Logon Ke Parivahan Ke Dauraan Padati Thi. Itani Badi Sankhya Me Logon Ka Prabandhan Karana Asaadhaarana Hai—Aaj Ke Zamaane Me Bhi 8,368 Logon Ka Matalab Hai Ek Bada Samudaay.

Praacheen Misravaasi Doosare Deshon Se Kachche Maal Ka Ayaat Karate The Aur Khud Se Haasil Vishesagyata Ke Bal Par Samooche Abaad Jagat Me Khadaanon Ko Khojate Aur Kachche Maal Ko Dhote The. Praacheen Misri Khanan Ki Vishistataayen Kayi Sthaanon Par Paayi Jaati Hain—Jaise Ki Iberia.

 

[isaka ek ansh:Praacheen Misri Sanskriti Ka Rahasyodghaatan -Vistaarit Dviteeya Sanskaran dvaara likhit Moustafa Gadalla]

par pustak saamagree dekhen https://egypt-tehuti.org/product/praacheen-misri-sanskriti-ka-rahasyodghaatan/

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